Twenty-nine different fuel types used in residential dwellings in northern India were collected from across Delhi (76 samples in total). Emission factors of a wide range of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (192 compounds in total) were measured during controlled burning experiments using dual-channel gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (DC-GC-FID), two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC-FID), proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and solid-phase extraction two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPE-GC x GC-ToF-MS). On average, 94 % speciation of total measured NMVOC emissions was achieved across all fuel types. The largest contributors to emissions from most fuel types were small non-aromatic oxygenated species, phenolics and furanics. The emission factors (in g kg.sup.-1) for total gas-phase NMVOCs were fuelwood (18.7, 4.3-96.7), cow dung cake (62.0, 35.3-83.0), crop residue (37.9, 8.9-73.8), charcoal (5.4, 2.4-7.9), sawdust (72.4, 28.6-115.5), municipal solid waste (87.3, 56.6-119.1) and liquefied petroleum gas (5.7, 1.9-9.8). The emission factors measured in this study allow for better characterisation, evaluation and understanding of the air quality impacts of residential solid-fuel combustion in India.