Comparison of antimicrobial activity of mycelium and spore of Ganoderma Lucidum on Prevotella Intermedia isolated from chronic periodontitis patients.

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Date: Jan-March 2021
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 2,114 words
Lexile Measure: 1460L

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Byline: Aarati. Nayak, P. Dixitraj, Ranganath. Nayak, Kishore. Bhat

Aim: The study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of mycelium and spore of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque of chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained from each subject enrolled in the study. The institutional ethics committee granted ethical clearance for the study. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Using sterile curettes, pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected from the deepest sites of periodontal pockets. The collected samples were then transported in 1 mL of reduced transport fluid. The organisms were cultured and confirmed and were used for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) procedure. Statistical Analysis: Mean of the MIC value obtained was calculated. Comparison between the antimicrobial activity of mycelium and spore against P. intermedia groups with respect to mean MIC value (in mcg/ml) was done by Mann-Whitney U test. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of mycelium and spores of G. lucidum against P. intermedia expressed by the MIC value at different concentrations was done by Chi-square test. Results: The mean MIC obtained for mycelium was 5.64 mcg/ml. The mean MIC obtained for spore was 3.62 mcg/ml. Results of the comparison of antimicrobial activity implied that the antimicrobial activity of mycelium and spore of G. lucidum was comparable. Conclusions: Both mycelium and spore of G. lucidum with its bioactivity could be used as an antimicrobial, in combination with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.

Introduction

The human oral cavity is inhabited by thousands of diverse species of microorganisms and a dynamic balance exists between the host and the microbial cells. The disruption of this balance can lead to diseases-periodontal disease being an example.[1],[2] In periodontal disease, the complex bacterial species colonize the sulcular regions of tooth surfaces and gingival margins, the initial colonizers being predominantly gram-positive aerobes, whereas the secondary colonizers being gram-negative bacteria.[3],[4],[5] The host-microbe interaction results in the formation of a periodontal pocket and clinical attachment loss.[3],[4] Some bacteria associated with chronic periodontitis are Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Bacteroides spp., and Selenomonas spp. P . intermedia plays a role in periodontal disease initiation and its progression;[6] thus, early detection and diagnosis is an urgent necessity.

Some mushrooms are used in the treatment of different types of disease. Ganoderma lucidum belonging to the Ganodermataceae family is a mushroom which has anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral, anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory properties.[7] Various parts of the mushroom, namely, fruiting body, mycelium, and spores produce many bioactive substances.

The antibacterial activity of G. lucidum has been studied by various authors. Ofodile et al .[8] studied the antimicrobial activity of mycelial culture of G . lucidum against various human pathogenic bacteria and found that almost all samples were sensitive Yoon et al .[9] studied the antibacterial activity of the spores of G. lucidum on various gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time....

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A666144102