Byline: P. Dixitraj, Aarati. Nayak, Shruti. Bansal, Kishore. Bhat
Background: Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology, has bacteria playing an essential role in its pathogenesis. Prevotella intermedia plays an important role in disease initiation and progression. Objectives: The objective was to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against P. intermedia in blood of periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis and compare their levels. Materials and Methodology: A total of 72 subjects were included, 36 subjects in the healthy group and 36 subjects in the chronic periodontitis group. Subgingival plaque sample and blood sample were obtained from each study subject. Samples were processed in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. P. intermedia were confirmed using the culture method and serum IgG levels were assessed using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. Comparison between healthy and chronic periodontitis groups was done using independent t-test. Results: IgG levels against P. intermedia were more in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the healthy group, and the difference was statistically significant. Interpretations and Conclusions: Increased levels of IgG antibodies against P. intermedia are associated with periodontal disease. This elevated antibody activity might help to neutralize the effects of the bacterium. IgG antibody level against P. intermedia is a promising indicator in the serological diagnosis of periodontal disease. In chronic periodontitis, the antibody titer in the patient's serum against P. intermedia is raised and could be used as a diagnostic aid.
Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology, has bacteria playing an essential role in its pathogenesis. The bacteria studied, comprise predominantly of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. Among them, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides spp., and Selenomonas spp. have been reported as associated with chronic periodontitis.
In the oral cavity, along with other pathogens P. intermedia (formerly known as Bacteroides intermedius ) plays an important role in the onset and subsequent development of the polymicrobial periodontal diseases. They are strict oral anaerobes and found in various niches and are seen in nonoral and oral infections. Oral infections include chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, puberty associated gingivitis, and ulcerative gingivitis. P. intermedia has been found in both periodontally healthy and diseased subjects and studies have shown that colonization of P. intermedia is more in periodontally diseased sites than in periodontally healthy sites.
The host immune response to bacterial infection in periodontal disease has been exclusively studied earlier. In periodontal disease, the antibody levels to several bacteria are elevated and have been hypothesized that failure of the host to mount an effective immune response to periodontal pathogens may be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids. The fundamental role of IgG is activating the humoral immune response, the complement system, and phagocytosis of microorganisms. IgG reacts with macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells and can activate the complement system and has a protective role in the pathogenesis of disease. In chronic periodontitis, antibodies are produced against various periodontopathogens and they...