Although the physiological and molecular responses of Citrus to Al-toxicity or low pH have been examined in some details, little information is available on Citrus responses to pH and aluminum (Al) interactions. Citrus sinensis seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution at a concentration of 0 or 1 mM Al[Cl.sub.3]*6[H.sub.2]O and a pH of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0. Thereafter, biomass, root, stem, and leaf concentrations of Al and nutrients, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients, and related parameters were investigated to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the elevated pH-induced alleviation of Citrus toxicity. Increasing the nutrient solution pH from 2.5 to 4.0 alleviated the Al-toxic effects on biomass, photosynthesis, OJIP transients and related parameters, and element concentrations, uptake, and distributions. In addition, low pH effects on the above physiological parameters were intensified by Al-toxicity. Evidently, a synergism existed between low pH and Al- toxicity. Increasing pH decreased Al uptake per root dry weight and its concentration in roots, stems, and leaves and increased nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and boron uptake per plant and their concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves. This might be responsible for the elevated pH-induced alleviation of growth inhibition and the impairment of the whole photosynthetic electron transport chain, thus preventing the decrease of C[O.sub.2] assimilation.