Cell surface GRP78 regulates BACE2 via lysosome-dependent manner to maintain mesenchymal phenotype of glioma stem cells.

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Date: Jan. 7, 2021
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 8,037 words
Lexile Measure: 1550L

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Abstract :

Background Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are considered the initial cells of gliomas, contributing to therapeutic resistance. Patient-derived GSCs well recapitulate the heterogeneity of their parent glioma tissues, which can be classified into different subtypes. Likewise, previous works identified GSCs as two distinct subtypes, mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN) subtypes, and with general recognition, the MES subtype is considered a more malignant phenotype characterized by high invasion and radioresistance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in the MES phenotype is necessary for glioblastoma treatment. Methods Data for bioinformatic analysis were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. An antibody was used to block cell surface glucose-regulated protein 78 (csGRP78). Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were performed to evaluate radiation damage. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to assess protein expression and distribution. Mass spectrometry combined with bioinformatic analysis was used to screen downstream molecules. Intracranial GSC-derived xenografts were established for in vivo experiments. Results Total GRP78 expression was associated with MES GSC stemness, and csGRP78 was highly expressed in MES GSCs. Targeting csGRP78 suppressed the self-renewal and radioresistance of MES GSCs in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by downregulation of the STAT3, NF-κB and C/EBP[beta] pathways. Mass spectrometry revealed the potential downstream [beta]-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2), which was regulated by csGRP78 via lysosomal degradation. Knockdown of BACE2 inactivated NF-κB and C/EBP[beta] and significantly suppressed the tumorigenesis and radioresistance of MES GSCs in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions Cell surface GRP78 was preferentially expressed in MES GSCs and played a pivotal role in MES phenotype maintenance. Thus, blocking csGRP78 in MES GSCs with a high-specificity antibody might be a promising novel therapeutic strategy. Keywords: GRP78, Glioma stem cell, BACE2, Radiation, Mesenchymal subtype

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A650596962