Background Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) 15-19 years of age are a growing proportion of all people living with HIV globally and the population includes adolescents with vertically acquired HIV (AVH) and behaviorally acquired HIV (ABH). Methods We conducted a survey to measure sociodemographic characteristics, educational status, health history, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a convenience sample of ALHIV at three government health facilities in 2019 in Nampula, Mozambique. ALHIV 15-19 years on ART, including females attending antenatal care, were eligible. Routine HIV care data were extracted from medical charts. Classification of ALHIV by mode of transmission was based on medical charts and survey data. ALHIV who initiated ART Results Among 208 ALHIV, 143 (69%) were female and median age was 18 years [interquartile range (IQR) 16-19]. Just over half of ALHIV (53%) were in or had completed secondary or higher levels of education; the most common reason for not being in school reported by 36% of females was pregnancy or having a child. Of all ALHIV, 122 (59%) had VL data, 62% of whom were Discussion Data from our study underscore the high level of deprivation among ALHIV enrolled in HIV care in Mozambique, as well as important disparities by sex and mode of transmission. These data can inform the development of effective interventions for this complex and important population.