Due to limited description of the role and diversity of archaea in WWTPs, the aim of the study was to analyze microbial community structures and diversities with particular regard to Archaea in the samples taken from different stages of the full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant and effluent receiving water (upstream and downstream discharge point). Our study was focused on showing how the treatment processes influenced the Eubacteria and Archaea composition. Alpha and Beta diversity were used to evaluate the microbial diversity changes in the collected samples. Proteobacteria was the largest fraction ranging from 28% to 67% with 56% relative abundance across all samples. Archaea were present in all stages of WWTP ranged from 1 to 8%. Among the Archaea, two groups of methanogens, acetoclastic (Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillium, Methanoculleus, Methanobrevibacter) were dominant in the technological stages. The obtained results indicate that the treated wastewater did not significantly affect eubacterial and archaeal composition in receiving water. However, differences in richness, diversity and microbial composition of Eubacteria and Archaea between the wastewater samples taken from the primary and secondary treatment were observed.