Vascular remodeling and contraction contribute to the development of hypertension. We investigated the role of miR-212-5p and its downstream target in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and contraction. MicroRNA microarray and PCR analyses showed that miR-212-5p expression was increased with angiotensin II treatment in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, miR-212-5p mimic treatment attenuated and miR-212-5p inhibitor treatment increased VSMC proliferation and migration. Additionally, miR-212-5p mimic treatment suppressed VSMC contraction and related gene expression [Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated protein kinase 2], while miR-212-5p inhibitor treatment exerted opposite effects. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B2 (PAFAH1B2) is a target of miR-212-5p. miR-212-5p mimic treatment significantly reduced and miR-212-5p inhibitor treatment increased PAFAH1B2 expression. Furthermore, PAFAH1B2 expression was decreased in angiotensin II-treated aortic tissues and VSMCs. PAFAH1B2 was ubiquitously expressed in most adult rat tissues. In the vasculature, PAFAH1B2 was only distributed in the cytoplasm. PAFAH1B2 overexpression decreased A10 cell proliferation, while PAFAH1B2 knockdown increased A10 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 mRNA levels. PAFAH1B2 knockdown stimulated VSMC contraction and RhoA expression. These results suggest that miR-212-5p and PAFAH1B2 are novel negative regulators of VSMC proliferation, migration, and contraction in hypertension.