Background Closely spaced birth increases the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of short birth spacing was highly variable across studies. Besides, contraceptive use, educational status, and duration of breastfeeding were frequently mentioned factors affecting short birth spacing. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of short birth spacing and its association with contraceptive use, educational status, and duration of breastfeeding among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. Methods International databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane library, HINARI, and Global Health were searched systematically to identify articles reporting the prevalence of short birth spacing and its association with contraceptive use, educational status, and duration of breastfeeding among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. The data were analyzed by STATA/SE version-14 statistical software. The random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of short birth spacing and the log odds ratio was used to determine the association. Moreover, egger's test and I-squared statistics were used to assess publication bias and heterogeneity respectively. Results After reviewing 511 research articles, a total of nine articles with 5,682 study participants were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of short birth spacing in Ethiopia was 46.9% [95% CI: (34.7, 59.1)]. Significant heterogeneity was observed between studies (I.sup.2 = 98.4, p Conclusions Although a minimum inter-pregnancy interval of two years was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), significant numbers of women still practiced short birth spacing in Ethiopia. Duration of breastfeeding and non-use of contraceptives were factors significantly associated with short birth spacing. So, efforts should be made to improve breastfeeding practice and contraceptive utilization among women in Ethiopia.