Purpose To evaluate the visual outcomes of vitrectomy for lamellar macular hole (LMH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) foveoschisis and to investigate the prognostic factor for postoperative visual acuity. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 15 LMH and 17 ERM foveoschisis eyes that had undergone a standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy with (12 eyes) or without (20 eyes) cataract surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at postoperative three months and the final visit were compared to the preoperative measurements. We investigated the relationship between BCVA at the final visit and baseline parameters (age, preoperative BCVA, the presence of epiretinal proliferation [EP] and ellipsoid zone [EZ] disruption). The best explanatory variables for the final BCVA were investigated using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc) model selection. Results The mean age was 67.2 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.7 months. Fifteen of 32 examined eyes were diagnosed as LMH and 17 eyes as ERM foveoschisis. Twelve eyes in LMH had EP and 13 eyes showed the disruption of EZ integrity. In total, BCVA significantly improved at 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.0013). A significant improvement was observed in ERM foveoschisis (p = 0.0085) but not in LMH group (p = 0.071). Comparing the BCVA between the baseline and the final visit, significant improvements were observed in total, ERM foveoschisis and LMH group (p Conclusion Our results suggested that the final BCVA was dependent on preoperative BCVA and the presence of EZ disruption. Surgical indications might be warranted for LMHs with EZ disruption.