There are currently no standard evaluation tools for poststroke neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. We previously suggested calculating the relative movements of the hyoid bone and larynx by ultrasonography to evaluate swallowing movement. Swallowing movement is altered in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify whether an ultrasonographic evaluation of swallowing movement facilitates the detection of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Eighteen healthy male elderly participants (the healthy group) and 18 male stroke patients diagnosed with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (the dysphagia group) were enrolled. Participants swallowed 5 mL of liquid and water with an adjusted viscosity and the movements of the hyoid bone and larynx were visualized by ultrasonography. The results obtained revealed significant differences in laryngeal duration (static phase), laryngeal displacement (elevation phase), and the hyoid bone-laryngeal motion ratio (HL motion ratio) between the two groups. A multiple regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors, and laryngeal duration (static phase) and the HL motion ratios were identified as factors affecting dysphagia. In the receiver operation characteristic curve of the two variations, the area under the curve for laryngeal duration (static phase) was 0.744 and the cut-off was 0.26 sec with 72.2% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity; the area under the curve for the HL motion ratio was 0.951 and the cut-off was 0.56 with 88.9% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. Therefore, the objective evaluation of hyoid bone and larynx movements during swallowing by ultrasonography facilitated the detection of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia.