Byline: Caroline Park, Department of General Surgery, Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (Drs Park, Grant, Dultz, Abdelfattah, Luk, and Dumas and Ms Lin); Department of Trauma, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas (Mss Johnson and Jeter); Department of Surgery, Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, University of Colorado, Boulder (Dr Cripps).; I-Chun Lin; Jennifer L. Grant; Linda A. Dultz; Della Johnson; Shannon Jeter; Kareem Abdelfattah; Stephen Luk; Michael Cripps; Ryan P. Dumas Abstract BACKGROUND: Training for trauma procedures has been limited to infrequent courses with little data on longitudinal performance, and few address procedural and leadership skills with granular assessment. We implemented a novel training program that emphasized an assessment of trauma resuscitation and procedural skills. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether this program could demonstrate improvement in both skill sets in surgical trainees over time. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study at a Level I trauma center between November 2018 and May 2019. A procedural skill and simulation program was implemented to train and evaluate postgraduate year (PGY) 1-5 residents. All residents participated in an initial course on procedures such as tube thoracostomy and vascular access, followed by a final evaluation. Skills were assessed by the Likert scale (1-5, 5 noting mastery). PGY 3s and above were additionally evaluated on resuscitation. A paired t test was performed on repeat learners. RESULTS: A total of 40 residents participated in the structured procedural skills and simulation program. Following completion of the program, PGY-2 scores increased from a Mdn [interquartile range, IQR] 3.0 [2.5-4.0] to 4.5 [4.2-4.5]. The PGY-3 scores increased from a Mdn [IQR] 3.95 [3.7-4.6] to 4.8 [4.6-5.0]. Eighteen residents underwent repeat simulation training, with Mdn [IQR] score increases in PGY 2s (3.7 [2.5-4.0] to end score 4.47 [4.0-4.5], p = .03) and PGY 3s (3.95 [3.7-4.6] to end score 4.81 [4.68-5.0], p = .04). Specific procedural and leadership skills also increased over time.