Risk factors associated with Salmonella prevalence, its antibiotic resistance, and egg antibiotic residues in the layer farming environment.

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From: Veterinary World(Vol. 15, Issue 3)
Publisher: Veterinary World
Document Type: Clinical report
Length: 4,889 words
Lexile Measure: 1410L

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Abstract :

Background and Aim: Human salmonellosis with non-typhoidal Salmonella remains a global public health concern related to the consumption of contaminated eggs and egg-based products. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of Salmonella, antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella, and egg antibiotic residues concerning risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination in eggs, the layer fanning environment, and laying hens kept in battery-cage closed- housing systems. Materials and Methods: This study used a repeated cross-sectional design to collect 488 samples from eggs, laying hens, and the farm environment on one laying farm for Salmonella detection according to ISO 6579:2002/AMD 1:2007. Salmonella-positive samples were further tested for serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility using the disk diffusion test. The layer farm contact person was interviewed at the sampling time to evaluate the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination using logistic regression analysis. For each month, 24 eggs (144 eggs in total) were also randomly sampled from the collection egg area at the farm for antibiotic residue detection using the European Four Plate Test. Results: The highest Salmonella prevalence rates were in the samples from the layer pen floors, followed by the egg sizing machine (ESM) and eggshells at 65.5%, 52.5%, and 15%, respectively. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis was the dominant serovar (48.38%), followed by Mbandaka (37.76%), Braenderup (14.29%), and Typhimurium (4.08). Rodent presence at the farm and the frequency of changing the disinfectant foot dip were significant factors related to Salmonella contamination on the pen floors (odds ratio [OR]=22.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.11-240.48, p=0.01; OR=24, 95% CI=2.78-206.96, p=0.004, respectively). Hand-washing before sorting and cleaning the ESM were the significant factors (OR=13, 95% CI=1.2-140.73, p=0.04). The most resistant Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline. One isolate of S. enterica Typhimurium was resistant to cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, and oxytetracycline. The antibiotic residues in the egg yolks were streptomycin, enrofloxacin, and tetracycline at prevalence rates of 36.11%, 11.81%, and 7.64%, respectively. Streptomycin was the most abundant residue in the albumen and yolk, followed by tetracycline. Conclusion: Salmonella prevalence in layer fanning with a closed-housing system is related to effective biosecurity and hygiene issues, such as rodent control, clean fann equipment, and good worker hygiene. In addition eggs' antibiotic residues may be related to treating antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolates and medicated feed with inappropriate antibiotic withdrawal time. Keywords: antibiotic residue, antibiotic resistance, eggs, laying hens, risk factors. Salmonella prevalence.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A698269419