Breakfast in Latin America: Evaluation of Nutrient and Food Group Intake Toward a Nutrient-Based Recommendation.

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Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Report; Author abstract
Length: 887 words

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the ELANS Study Group Keywords Breakfast; Nutritional intake; Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 score; Latin America; Recommendations Abstract Background Little is known about breakfast habits of the Latin American (LA) population to support nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast in this region. Objective To evaluate the nutritional composition of breakfast in the LA population and to propose recommendations for a balanced breakfast. Design This multicenter cross-sectional study evaluated food and nutrient intake of nationally representative samples of urban populations of 8 LA countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela) in 2014-2015. Participants/setting The sample comprised 8714 participants from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, aged 15 to 65 years, randomly recruited according to geographical location, sex, age, and socioeconomic level. Main outcome measures Two 24-hour recalls were used to examine dietary intake. Breakfast consumers were stratified by tertiles of Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF9.3) to assess the overall diet quality of individuals. Nutrient intake at breakfast of those in the upper tertile of NRF9.3 pooled for the 8 countries was used as a reference for the development of recommendations for LA adolescents and adults. Statistical analyses Comparison of food and nutrient intake of breakfast across NRF9.3 tertiles were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Results Overall breakfast was an important contributor to protein, carbohydrate, and B vitamin intakes but also to added sugar and total and saturated fat intakes relative to daily intakes. Individuals in the upper NRF9.3 tertile had higher intake of key micronutrients such as calcium and potassium at breakfast compared with other tertiles. White breads/rolls/tortillas were the most consumed food group (60%), followed by butter/margarine (40%) and coffee/tea without milk (34%-50%). Conclusions Breakfast contributed to the daily intake of B vitamins, protein, and carbohydrates but also added sugar and total and saturated fat intakes for all countries. The proposed recommendations support the nutrient density of existing highest-quality breakfast in the LA population while addressing concerns about nutrients to be encouraged or reduced. Author Affiliation: (1) Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Buenos Aires, Argentina (2) Excellence Center for Nutrition and Feeding Difficulties (CENDA-PENSI Institute), Jose Luiz Egydio Setubal Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil (3) Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (4) Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil (5) Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departmento de Nutrição, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (6) Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (7) Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago, Chile (8) Laboratorio de Rendimiento Humano, Grupo de Estudio en Educación, Actividad Física y Salud (GEEAFyS), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile (9) Departamento de Bioquímica, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica (10) Centro de Nutrición Molecular y Enfermedades Crónicas, Departamento de Nutrición, Diabetes y Metabolismo, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile (11) Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia (12) Colégio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador (13) Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, Universidad Central de Venezuela (CENDES-UCV)/Fundación Bengoa, Caracas, Venezuela (14) Instituto de Investigación Nutricional, La Molina, Lima, Peru * Address correspondence to: Irina Kovalskys, MD, PhD, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Av Alicia Moreau de Justo 1300, Buenos Aires C1107AAZ, Argentina. Article History: Received 8 November 2020; Accepted 11 November 2021 (footnote) Supplementary materials: and are available at (footnote) STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST M. Fisberg has received fees and consultancy payments from biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and food and beverage companies. M. Fisberg has also received fees and payments for consulting and financing research studies without any restrictions from government sources and nonprofit entities. The rest of the authors also have no conflicts of interest to declare. None of the entities mentioned had or have any role in the design or preparation of this manuscript. (footnote) FUNDING/SUPPORT The International Breakfast Research Initiative and this data analysis were funded by Cereal Partner Worldwide (Latin American and European Studies) and General Mills, Inc (Canadian and US studies). Fieldwork and data analysis comprised in ELANS protocol were supported by a scientific grant from the Coca Cola Company (Atlanta, Georgia) and by grants and/or support from the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Argentina, Instituto Pensi/Hospital Infantil Sabara, Universidad de Costa Rica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Universidad Central de Venezuela/Fundación Bengoa, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, and Instituto de Investigación Nutricional de Perú. The study sponsors did not have any role in study design, data collection, analysis, the decision to publish, or the preparation of this manuscript. (footnote)* Certified in Brazil, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, or Peru. Byline: Irina Kovalskys, MD, PhD [] (1,*), Mauro Fisberg, MD, PhD (2,3), Agatha Nogueira Previdelli, MSc, PhD, RD (4,*), Jaqueline Lopes Pereira, MSc, PhD, RD (5,*), Ioná Zalcman Zimberg, MSc, PhD, RD (6,*), Viviana Guajardo, MSc (1), Regina Fisberg, MSc, PhD, RD (5,*), Gerson Ferrari, MSc, PhD (7,8), Georgina Gómez, MSc, PhD, RD (9,*), Attilio Rigotti, MD, PhD (10), Lilia Y. Cortés Sanabria, MSc, PhD, RD (11,*), Martha C. Yépez García, MSc, PhD, RD (12,*), Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, MSc, PhD, MD (13), María Reyna Liria Domínguez, MSc, PhD, RD (14,*)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A704126106