Byline: Georgios Filippatos, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Tripoli, Greece.; Maria Tsironi; Sofia Zyga; Panagiotis Andriopoulos Abstract BACKGROUND: Although the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been extensively used for mortality risk adjustment in trauma, its applicability in contemporary trauma populations is increasingly questioned. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of the TRISS in its original and revised version and compare these with a recalibrated version, including current data from a Greek trauma population. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of admitted trauma patients conducted in two tertiary Greek hospitals from January 2016 to December 2018. The model algorithm was calculated based on the Major Trauma Outcome Study coefficients (TRISSMTOS), the National Trauma Data Bank coefficients (TRISSNTDB), and reweighted coefficients of logistic regression obtained from a Greek trauma dataset (TRISSGrTD). The primary endpoint was inhospital mortality. Models' prediction was performed using discrimination and calibration statistics. RESULTS: A total of 8,988 trauma patients were included, of whom 854 died (9.5%). The TRISSMTOS displayed excellent discrimination with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.912 (95% CI 0.902-0.923) and comparable with TRISSNTDB (AUC = 0.908, 95% CI 0.897-0.919, p = .1195). Calibration of both models was poor (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p CONCLUSION: In this cohort of Greek trauma patients, the performance of the original TRISS was suboptimal, and there was no evidence that it has benefited from its latest revision. By contrast, a strong case exists for supporting a locally recalibrated version to render the TRISS applicable for mortality prediction and performance benchmarking.