Background With the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) are surviving longer and are at risk for developing metabolic abnormalities that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is a paucity of epidemiological data on lipid profiles among young adults receiving ART. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), a cardioprotective lipid class, and whether it differed by age among adults on ART in Livingstone, Zambia. Methods From April to December 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 597 PLWH [n = 58 aged 18-24 years (young adults); n = 539 aged [greater than or equal to]25 years (adults)] on ART for [greater than or equal to]6 months. Data collected included demographic and lifestyle information, anthropometrics, viral load (VL), CD4 count, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting/random blood glucose. Clinical measures were defined as: low HDL-c [ Results Among the young adults, 60% (35/58) were women, median (25.sup.th, 75.sup.th percentile) age 21 years (18, 23), and median time on ART 116 months (60, 144). Among adults, 63% (342/539) were women, median age 46 years (40, 53) and median time on ART 108 months (60, 144). Young adults had a lower CD4 count compared to adults (median, 492 vs. 568 cells/[mu]L, p = 0.010) and higher prevalence of VF (29% vs. 17%, p = 0.016). In young adults, prevalence of low HDL-c was significantly higher than in adults (63 vs. 38%, p Conclusion Low HDL-c is highly prevalent among young adult with HIV in SSA independent of other risk factors for metabolic derangements. Lipid abnormalities among young PLWH may contribute to the early development of cardiovascular diseases in this population. This highlights the need to consider low HDL-c in the quest to reduce CVD risk among young adults on ART in SSA.