Target spike patterns enable efficient and biologically plausible learning for complex temporal tasks.

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 2)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 10,199 words
Lexile Measure: 1490L

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Abstract :

Recurrent spiking neural networks (RSNN) in the brain learn to perform a wide range of perceptual, cognitive and motor tasks very efficiently in terms of energy consumption and their training requires very few examples. This motivates the search for biologically inspired learning rules for RSNNs, aiming to improve our understanding of brain computation and the efficiency of artificial intelligence. Several spiking models and learning rules have been proposed, but it remains a challenge to design RSNNs whose learning relies on biologically plausible mechanisms and are capable of solving complex temporal tasks. In this paper, we derive a learning rule, local to the synapse, from a simple mathematical principle, the maximization of the likelihood for the network to solve a specific task. We propose a novel target-based learning scheme in which the learning rule derived from likelihood maximization is used to mimic a specific spatio-temporal spike pattern that encodes the solution to complex temporal tasks. This method makes the learning extremely rapid and precise, outperforming state of the art algorithms for RSNNs. While error-based approaches, (e.g. e-prop) trial after trial optimize the internal sequence of spikes in order to progressively minimize the MSE we assume that a signal randomly projected from an external origin (e.g. from other brain areas) directly defines the target sequence. This facilitates the learning procedure since the network is trained from the beginning to reproduce the desired internal sequence. We propose two versions of our learning rule: spike-dependent and voltage-dependent. We find that the latter provides remarkable benefits in terms of learning speed and robustness to noise. We demonstrate the capacity of our model to tackle several problems like learning multidimensional trajectories and solving the classical temporal XOR benchmark. Finally, we show that an online approximation of the gradient ascent, in addition to guaranteeing complete locality in time and space, allows learning after very few presentations of the target output. Our model can be applied to different types of biological neurons. The analytically derived plasticity learning rule is specific to each neuron model and can produce a theoretical prediction for experimental validation.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A651981600