Racialized economic segregation and health outcomes: A systematic review of studies that use the Index of Concentration at the Extremes for race, income, and their interaction.

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 17, Issue 1)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 12,240 words
Lexile Measure: 1540L

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Abstract :

Extensive research shows that residential segregation has severe health consequences for racial and ethnic minorities. Most research to date has operationalized segregation in terms of either poverty or race/ethnicity rather than a synergy of these factors. A novel version of the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE.sub.Race-Income) specifically assesses racialized economic segregation in terms of spatial concentrations of racial and economic privilege (e.g., wealthy white people) versus disadvantage (e.g., poor Black people) within a given area. This multidimensional measure advances a more comprehensive understanding of residential segregation and its consequences for racial and ethnic minorities. The aim of this paper is to critically review the evidence on the association between ICE.sub.Race-Income and health outcomes. We implemented the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to conduct a rigorous search of academic databases for papers linking ICE.sub.Race-Income with health. Twenty articles were included in the review. Studies focused on the association of ICE.sub.Race-Income with adverse birth outcomes, cancer, premature and all-cause mortality, and communicable diseases. Most of the evidence indicates a strong association between ICE.sub.Race-Income and each health outcome, underscoring income as a key mechanism by which segregation produces health inequality along racial and ethnic lines. Two of the reviewed studies examined racial disparities in comorbidities and health care access as potential explanatory factors underlying this relationship. We discuss our findings in the context of the extant literature on segregation and health and propose new directions for future research and applications of the ICE.sub.Race-Income measure.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A690820929