Investigation of Delayed Response during Real-Time Cursor Control Using Electroencephalography.

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Date: Mar. 2020
Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Document Type: Article
Length: 5,895 words
Lexile Measure: 1350L

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Abstract :

Error-related brain activation has been investigated for advanced brain-machine interfaces (BMI). However, how a delayed response of cursor control in BMI systems should be handled is not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how participants responded to delayed cursor control. Six subjects participated in the experiment and performed a wrist-bending task. For three distinct delay intervals (an interval where participants could not perceive the delay, an interval where participants could not be sure whether there was a delay or not, and an interval where participants could perceive the delay), we assessed two types of binary classifications ("Yes + No" vs. "I don't know" and "Yes" vs. "No") based on participants' responses and applied delay times (thus, four types of classification, overall). For most participants, the "Yes vs. No" classification had higher accuracy than "Yes + No" vs. "I don't know" classification. For the "Yes + No" vs. "I don't know" classification, most participants displayed higher accuracy based on response classification than delay classification. Our results demonstrate that a class only for "I don't know" largely contributed to these differences. Many independent components (ICs) that exhibited high accuracy in "Yes + No" vs. "I don't know" response classification were associated with activation of areas from the frontal to parietal lobes, while many ICs that showed high accuracy in the "Yes vs. No" classification were associated with activation of an area ranging from the parietal to the occipital lobes and were more broadly localized in cortical regions than was seen for the "Yes + No" vs. "I don't know" classification. Our results suggest that small and large delays in real-time cursor control differ not only in the magnitude of the delay but should be handled as distinct information in different ways and might involve differential processing in the brain.

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Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A621579675