Heavy truck restrictions and air quality implications in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 497 words

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To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.022 Byline: Pedro Jose Perez-Martinez [pedro.perez@ufabc.edu.br] (a,*), Maria de Fatima Andrade (b), Regina Maura de Miranda (c) Keywords Air pollution trends; Transport emission factors; Traffic-pollutant relationships; Sao Paulo Highlights * Pollutant reductions are estimated from ground measurements (28 and 43% less PM10 and NOX). * Restrictions on vehicle emission factors (72% less trucking) can affect air quality significantly. * HV traffic reductions mitigate PM10 and NOx concentrations, although LV traffic is increased. * Need to establish transport policies to decrease pollutant concentrations and avoid increasing traffic. * Characterization of ozone formation generated by different transport-related emissions. Abstract This study quantified the effects of traffic restrictions on diesel fuel heavy vehicles (HVs) on the air quality of the Bandeirantes corridor using hourly data obtained by continuous monitoring of traffic and air quality at sites located on this avenue. The study addressed the air quality of a city impacted by vehicular emissions and that PM.sub.10 and NO.sub.X concentrations are mainly due to diesel burning. Data collection was split into two time periods, a period of no traffic constraint on HVs (Nov 2008 and 2009) and a period of constraint (Nov 2010, 2011 and 2012). We found that pollutants on this corridor, mainly PM.sub.10 and NO.sub.X, decreased significantly during the period from 2008 to 2012 (28 and 43%, 15.8 and 86.9 ppb) as a direct consequence of HV traffic restrictions (a 72% reduction). Rebound effects in the form of increased traffic of light vehicles (LVs) during this time had impacts on the concentration levels, explaining the differences between rates of reduction in HV traffic and pollutants. Reductions in the number of trucks resulted in longer travel times and increased traffic congestion as a consequence of the modal shift towards LVs. We found that a 51% decrease in PM.sub.10 (28.8 [mu]g m.sup.-3) was due to a reduction in HV traffic (vehicle emissions were estimated to be 71% of total sources, 40.1 [mu]g m.sup.-3). This percentage was partially offset by 10% more PM.sub.10 emissions related to an increase in LV traffic, while other causes, such as climatic conditions, contributed to a 13% increase in PM.sub.10 concentrations. The relationships analyzed in this research served to highlight the need to apply urban transport policies aimed at decreasing pollutant concentrations in Sao Paulo, especially in heavily congested urban corridors on working days. Author Affiliation: (a) Center for Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences (CECS), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, Brazil (b) Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil (c) School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil * Corresponding author. Center for Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences (CECS), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Avenida dos Estados, 5001 - Bairro Santa Terezinha, Santo Andre, 09210-580, Brazil. Article History: Received 22 February 2017; Revised 24 May 2017; Accepted 9 July 2017

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A518577198