Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor to which humans are often subjected during daily life. This study aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of astragaloside IV (ASIV) or saponins extracted from Astragalus spinosus (A. spinosus) against DNA damage and neurotoxic effects induced by BPA in prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampal and striatal brain regions of developing male rats. Materials and Methods Juvenile PND20 (pre-weaning; age of 20 days) male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: control, BPA, BPA+ASIV and BPA+A. spinosus saponins groups. Bisphenol A (125 mg/kg/day) was administrated orally to male rats from day 20 (BPA group) and along with ASIV (80 mg/kg/day) (BPA+ASIV group) or A. spinosus saponin (100 mg/kg/day) (BPA+ A.spinosus saponins group) from day 50 to adult age day 117. Results Increased level of nitric oxide (NO) and decreased level of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), glutaminase (GA) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were observed in the brain regions of BPA treated rats compared with the control. On the other hand, co-administration of ASIV or A. spinosus saponin with BPA considerably improved levels of these neurochemicals. The current study also revealed restoration of the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR.sub.2 A and NR.sub.2 B) gene expression in BPA+ ASIV and BPA+A. spinosus saponins groups. The co-treatment of BPA group with ASIV or A. spinosus saponin significantly reduced the values of comet parameters as well as the intensity of estrogen receptors (ERs) immunoreactive cells and improved the histological alterations induced by BPA in different brain regions. Conclusion It could be concluded that ASIV or A. spinosus saponins has a promising role in modulating the neurotoxicity and DNA damage elicited by BPA.