CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated entrapment of axons at the injury site compromises optic nerve regeneration.

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Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
Document Type: Report
Length: 11,174 words
Lexile Measure: 1420L

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Abstract :

Regenerative failure in the mammalian optic nerve is generally attributed to axotomy-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, an insufficient intrinsic regenerative capacity, and an extrinsic inhibitory environment. Here, we show that a chemoattractive CXCL12/CXCR4-dependent mechanism prevents the extension of growth-stimulated axons into the distal nerve. The chemokine CXCL12 is chemoattractive toward axonal growth cones in an inhibitory environment, and these effects are entirely abolished by the specific knockout of its receptor, CXCR4 ([CXCR4.sup.-/-]), in cultured regenerating RGCs. Notably, 8% of naive RGCs express CXCL12 and transport the chemokine along their axons in the nerve. Thus, axotomy causes its release at the injury site. However, most osteopontin-positive [alpha]-RGCs, the main neuronal population that survives optic nerve injury, express CXCR4 instead. Thus, CXCL12-mediated attraction prevents growth-stimulated axons from regenerating distally in the nerve, indicated by axons returning to the lesion site. Accordingly, specific depletion of CXCR4 in RGC reduces aberrant axonal growth and enables long-distance regeneration. Likewise, CXCL12 knockout in RGCs fully mimics these [CXCR4.sup.-/-] effects. Thus, active CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated entrapment of regenerating axons to the injury site contributes to regenerative failure in the optic nerve. axon regeneration | optic nerve | CNS | CXCR4 | CXCL12

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A664318941