Cloning refers to the creation of identical copies of biological organisms. Some organisms, including certain plant, algae, fungi, and protozoa species, naturally produce offspring that are genetically identical to their parents. Early human civilizations discovered they could produce genetic copies by intervening with the natural propagation of plants. This natural cloning of plants has played an important role in agriculture. Scientists began exploring artificial cloning in the nineteenth century.
Artificial cloning can be subdivided into three types: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning occurs when scientists seek, identify, and copy specific genes from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from an organism. Reproductive cloning, also known as organismal cloning, produces a genetically identical copy of an entire...Read more