Electronic voting, or e-voting, refers to different electronic and digital technologies used to cast, record, and count ballots during an election or referendum. Forms of e-voting are already used in some US jurisdictions. Examples of e-voting technologies in use include direct-recording electronic machines (DREs) and limited forms of internet-based voting. Other models, such as smartphone applications, remain in development and have been widely discussed as possible methods of improving voter turnout, poll safety, and poll accessibility while also reducing the amount of time it takes to vote and to count votes. Despite the potential benefits, criticism that electronic voting systems are vulnerable to errors and fraud became central to efforts to overturn the results of the 2020 presidential election.